The November/December Issue of the Electrical Insulation Magazine has been released. Use the accordion headings below to explore this issue’s content, and visit the IEEE Xplore for full magazine access.
Lightning Protection of Wind Turbine Blades—How Supersizing Has Created New Challenges for Nanodielectrics Research
Orestis Vryonis; Antonio A.M. Laudani; Thomas Andritsch; Igor O. Golosnoy; Alun S. Vaughan
Testing Challenges in the Development of Innovative Extruded Insulation for HVDC Cables
M. Albertini; S. Franchi Bononi; S. Giannini; G. Mazzanti; N. Guerrini
A Review on the Relevance of Standards for Silicone Insulating Liquids Used in Cable Sealing Ends
Soumya Thakur; Allison Shaw; Thomas Andritsch; George Callender; Paul L. Lewin; Oliver Cwikowski
DEIS AdCom Member-At-Large [email protected]
Diversity and Inclusion Efforts
Genetic diversity is required for a population to adapt and thrive as external factors change—whether it be disease, natural disaster, or a boom in predator populations. It turns out that this is not unique to species in the natural world. In 2018 McKinsey and company  published an article that showed a correlation between diversity in a company’s workforce and the company’s overall financial performance. As this paper noted, correlation is not causation. Currently, there is not enough data to say that increasing diversity causes improvements in financial performance. However, they do note that most companies only increase diversity when there is a strong initiative to do so. Although DEIS is not a company with the goal of financial gain, it stands to reason that there are benefits to having a diverse membership. April 2020 PNAS published an article that correlated increased diversity with increased innovation . As a Society dedicated to the advancement of dielectrics and electrical insulation, it would be in our best interest to promote diversity within our membership.
Besides the self-serving interest mentioned above, there is a moral component to implementing diversity initiatives as well. The very basic idea of fairness and equality is that everyone should have a chance to participate if they have the interest and, in some cases, the aptitude to do so. Factors beyond an individual’s control, or factors irrelevant to the opportunity at hand, should not be used to exclude anyone. While in theory this seems like an easy position for an organization or person to adopt, the reality becomes a bit more complicated when things like human nature, cultural differences, and systemic biases come into play. Overt or malicious behavior that excludes spe-cific groups is fairly easy to identify and address. The more challenging step is when there is nothing overtly preventing anyone from participating and yet the diversity found in the overall population is not reflected in a smaller group. This phenomenon is true within DEIS; the statistics show that the numbers of women, students, and young professional members are significantly lower than the general population.
To address this concerns, AdCom formed a new ad hoc committee to specifically look at what the Society is doing to promote diversity and inclusion for all participants (or would be participants!) in the dielectrics and insulation community. The first thing this committee did was to clarify and state what exactly the Society is trying to achieve. To this end, a Diversity and Inclusion Statement was drafted and approved by AdCom in May 2021. The statement is as follows:
The IEEE Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation Society (DEIS) is committed to providing equal opportunity to students, scientists, engineers and professionals, regardless of age, disability, ethnicity, gender identity or gender expression, national origin, race, religion, sexual orientation, and socioeconomic status. Diversity is fundamentally about valuing human differences and recognizing diverse talents, and inclusion is embracing and welcoming these differences. Our policy is to continually improve our practices in order to build and maintain an environment that reflects the rich di-versity of the community in the field of dielectrics and insulation. In support of these ideals, this society will not tolerate harassment of any kind, including sexual harassment or bullying behavior.
The statement quite simply reflects that we welcome all people to participate in our community and expect everyone to treat each other with respect and dignity.
As a society with members across the globe, defining what exactly diversity means can be tricky. A minority group in one locale might be the majority in another region. An ethnic distinction in one country does not necessarily hold the same meaning or challenges in another. To that end, the approach taken is to encourage underrepresented groups to participate in DEIS. The advantage to focusing on underrepresented groups is that there is some flexibility in the definition. At a global level, students, young professionals, and women are underrepresented in our Society. However different regions and chapters of DEIS can identify additional underrepresented groups unique to their locale.
The committee has been working on identifying some initiatives that can be implemented to improve diversity. As conferences are one of the bigger events where members have the opportunity to participate and interact with our Society, it makes sense to look at how to increase accessibility and diversity at conferences. This can be through a variety of means, whether it is financial assistance or other means of support such a child care, or interpreters, or activities targeting a particular group. Besides conferences, there could be opportunities to engage members through online webinars, summer schools, and volunteer opportunities. The team is still working on what is feasible and most likely to be effective, but there are some exciting proposals in the works.
On an organizational level, conferences can provide opportunities for underrepresented groups. For example, the Electrical Insulation Conference has held a student lunch in previous years and is holding a virtual panel discussion for students this year. Other societies have implemented mentoring programs to pair younger members with experienced professionals. These initiatives are wonderful and rely on a formal top-down approach, where the leaders and organizers implement opportunities to promote inclusivity. There are plenty of other opportunities where individuals can make a difference. Asking students questions about their posters or oral presentations, research interests, or career goals are a few ways to reach out. Another way is to casually chat with someone standing alone during coffee breaks, social meetings, or banquets. Members can reach out to one another in between conferences to stay in touch. Taking the chance and reaching out to someone new for volunteer opportunities is an additional way to diversify participation and promote inclusion. For many members, this is second nature and much appreciated. Finding occasions to consciously make an effort to promote a culture where everyone feels welcome is something that everyone can look for.
Along those lines, all suggestions and ideas on how we as a Society can continue to grow our membership, promote diversity, and cultivate inclusion would be appreciated. They can be sent to me at [email protected]. Please send a note if you are interested in participating in this initiative. Finally, I wish to thank you for your time and consideration in reading this article.
Best Regards, Elizabeth Foley
 V. Hunt, S. Prince, S. Dixon-Fyle, and L. Yee, Delivering Through Diversity. McKinsey&Company, Jan. 2018. Accessed: May 31, 2021. [Online]. Available: https://www.mckinsey.com/~/ media/mckinsey/business%20functions/ organization/our%20insights/delivering%20through%20diversity/delivering-through-diversity_full-report.ashx.
 B. Hofstra, V. V. Kulkarni, S. M. Galvez, B. He, D. Jurafsky, and D. A. McFarland, “The diversity–innovation paradox in science,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., vol. 117, no. 17, pp. 9284–9291, Apr. 2020, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1915378117.
From The Editor
While at least some of us have been given more freedom again, we are thinking of how to prepare for a world postCOVID. You may remember that a few months ago we started a survey on conference attendance of DEIS members before, during, and after COVID-19. The results of this survey are presented and analyzed in this issue of the Magazine and can be used by the DEIS leadership to fine-tune our conferences. It seems likely that the conference landscape will change.
This issue of the Magazine contains three featured articles on a variety of topics.
The first article in this issue, “Lightning Protection of Wind Turbine Blades—How Supersizing Has Created New Challenges for Nanodielectrics Research,” is authored by Orestis Vryonis, Antonio Laudani, Thomas Andritsch, Igor Golosnoy, and Alun Vaughan, University of Southampton, UK. In this article an interesting link is made between supersizing in lightning protection of wind turbine blades and polymer nanocomposites. It is shown how nanocomposites with improved electrical and thermal performance may be used to effectively mitigate some of the issues related to lightning protection of very large wind turbines. First, it is described how this supersizing has led to an increased probability of lightning impact on the wind turbines. It is shown that one has to deal with both the electrical and thermal properties of the materials used in wind turbine blades. Next, it is described how polymer nanocomposites may be used in addressing these issues. The emphasis is on graphene oxide (GO), and the most suitable synthesis of GO is discussed. Then, the authors present the results of simulations of the current, electric field, and temperature profile in a turbine blade when it is hit by lightning. It is shown that the use of GO in the epoxy resin of the blades significantly reduces the peak current density and the associate Joule heat. The authors conclude that the positive effects of GO-filled epoxies on system performance present clear benefits that, combined with a simple design and low-cost manufacturing, outweigh any additional complications related to the introduction of nanoparticles in such components.
The second article, “Testing Challenges in the Development of Innovative Extruded Insulation for HVDC Cables,” is the result of a collaborative effort of Marco Albertini, Stefano Franchi Bononi, and S. Giannini, Prysmian SpA, Italy; Giovanni Mazzanti, University of Bologna, Italy; and N. Guerrini, Prysmian Câbles et Systèmes, France. The article starts with introducing the drivers for the fast development of HVDC cable systems and then lists the different HVDC cable technologies currently available. The current standards for testing such systems are described, as well as the test equipment required. Next, the attention is focused on the quest for HVDC cables with improved performance, specifically XLPE-based insulation developed for DC and polypropylene-based HPTE insulation. For newly designed insulation systems, the authors then present their electrical testing approach, from research tests to eventually development tests. Finally, some examples are given of research and development tests on new extruded insulation for HVDC application.
The third article, “A review on the Relevance of Standards for Silicone Insulating Liquids Used in Cable Sealing Ends,” is written by Soumya Thakur, Allison Shaw, Thomas Andritsch, George Callender, and Paul L. Lewin from the University of Southampton, UK, in collaboration with Oliver Cwikowski of National Grid Electricity Transmission, UK. In this article, the authors discuss standards relevant to silicone liquids used in cable sealing ends from the standpoint of theoretical and empirical research. In a critical review of existing standards, six key properties of silicone liquids are singled out and discussed in detail, i.e., sample handling, viscosity, dielectric parameters, breakdown voltage, DC conductivity, and moisture content. For each key property, the most important deviations between the standards and actual experimental values and observations are highlighted. Based on common observations, an extensive list of suggestions is presented to improve the current practices.
News from Japan
John J. Shea
Optical Sensing in Power Transformers
J. Jiang and G. Ma
John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
111 River Street
Hoboken, NJ 07030 http://www.wiley.com
248 pp., 129 € (Hardcover), 2021
Large oil-filled power transformers are expensive and costly to replace and can have long lead times, especially for unplanned failed units. Many of today’s transformers are well past their original design life. So, monitoring the health of a power transformer is widely performed in industry to reduce the risk of failure due to degradation of the insulating properties of the oil from water absorption, leading to partial discharge activity or overvoltages. An electrical breakdown inside a transformer can lead to a catastrophic failure resulting in rupturing of the tank and fire. In the past, samples of oil were removed from the transformer manually, and gas chromatography (GC) was used to perform a dissolved gas analysis (DGA) to quantitatively analyze the oil for the presence of certain gases, dissolved in the oil, which are a good indicator of the condition of the oil. Dry (i.e., low moisture content), low gas content oil has a higher breakdown strength than oil containing moisture and/or dissolved gases. Partial discharge activity, exacerbated by water absorption in the oil from moisture in the air, or overvoltages, or long-term overloading can produce gasses from the electrical breakdown and subsequent decomposition of the transformer oil. High levels of these gases are an indicator that there could be a problem with the transformer and that the oil needs to be either reconditioned or replaced, and possibly, winding insulation or other repairs may also be necessary.
Because the DGA method is taken in a single point in time, researchers have looked for better methods to provide continuous monitoring of the state of the transformer oil. This book describes new optical methods and the state of the art in power transformer optical sensing. This book describes the concepts and current industry practice of various popular condition monitoring techniques for temperature, moisture content, DGA, PD, winding deformation, vibration, voltage and current measurements, and electric field measurements. It also covers the fundamentals of optical principles used for monitoring oil-filled transformers and some practical techniques of optical probe design, circuit topology, and the advantages and drawbacks of various methods.
Background material covers an overview of oil-filled power transformers in power grids and the need for condition monitoring with a basic outline for traditional techniques and the need for new sensing methods. The remainder of the book delves into these new methods: optical temperature measurements inside oil-filled transformers using optical fiber sensors to monitor hot spot temperatures and distributed measurements. Descriptions of three optical sensing methods for moisture measurements are described including fiber Bragg grating (FBG), evanescent wave, and FabryPerot (FP) based moisture measurements. DGA is explained and its requirements for online monitoring. The optical methods described for DGA are photoacoustic spectrum (PAS), Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR), tunable diode laser absorption spectrum (TDLAS), laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS), and Fiber Bragg grating (FBG). A comparison of these methods shows the advantages and disadvantages of each. Optical sensing methods (FBG, FP, and dual-beam interference) are also described for measuring partial discharge (PD) activity in a transformer. The last topic describes the measurement of mechanical and electrical parameters using optical methods. These cover winding deformation, voltage and current measurements, and electric fields.
This comprehensive and well-written book offers valuable information for researchers, utility engineers, operators, and technicians who want to learn about the latest methods for in-situ monitoring of the condition of oil-filled power transformers. It is loaded with many figures, drawings, circuits and data clearly illustrating the latest in cutting-edge technology for optical measurements applied to oil-filled power transformers.
Collisional Effects on Molecular Spectra— Laboratory Experiments and Models, Consequences for Applications, 2nd Edition
J. Hartmann, C. Boulet, and D. Robert Elsevier
50 Hampshire Street
Cambridge, MA 02139 http://www.elsevier.com/books-and-
575 pp., $250 (Softcover), 2021
Gas spectroscopy has been used to identify materials based on distinct line patterns emitted by excited molecules in the material. The presence of lines, line intensities, and line shapes are used to determine the chemical composition of a material. The position and relative intensity of a line or band are relatively easy to measure or even calculate. However, the line shape or band shape is very difficult to model in part because it depends in a very complex way on the environment of the emitted species. The study of line shapes remains a vigorous area of experimental and theoretical activity. With the recent advances in tunable single frequency lasers, the intrinsic line shape can be measured in remote atmospheric sensing applications with the highest fidelity to date.
The general-purpose line shape profile is modeled using a Voigt function, in which Gaussian and Lorentzian functions are special limiting cases. Modern high fidelity spectra need “non-Voigt” line shape functions in order to be modeled correctly. The physical reason for this non-Voigt behavior can originate from many complex effects including collisional-induced absorption, collisional line mixing, weak collisions, and a variety of other speed-dependent collisional effects. These effects can be very difficult to model accurately.
This book focuses on the collisional effects on line spectra for gas emission spectroscopy using both experimental and theoretical approaches. The book begins with a review of applicable equations and theory of line shape including the dipole autocorrelation function, “conventional” impact theories, and spectral and time domain profiles. These topics are followed by theory on isolated lines, collisional line mixing, and weak collisions (beyond the impact approximation), and collision-induced absorption and light scattering.
Consequences of line shape for various applications mainly focus on radiative heat transfer and remote sensing of astronomical entities. Laboratory experimental techniques cover cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy, cavity ringdown spectroscopy, frequency comb assisted methods, direct frequency comb spectroscopy, dual-laser absorption, Fourier-transform methods, and terahertz spectroscopy.
The last section describes future research trends with discussions on Dicke narrowing in speed-dependent line-mixing profiles, multiplet spectra, resonances, weak collisions, and future spectroscopic data bases.
This book would be for the researcher involved with gas emission spectroscopy for plasma emission in general and especially for those using remote spectroscopic methods for astronomy and practical applications in probing gas media and climate prediction. It reviews recently developed experimental techniques for high accuracy and sensitivity measurements and has many references for extended study.
Thermoelectric Energy Conversion Devices and Systems
K. Yazawa, J. Bahk, and A. Shakouri World Scientific Publishing Co.
5 Toh Tuck Link
27 Warren Street
Hackensack, NJ 07601 http://www.worldscientificpress.com ISBN 978-981-121-826-2
388 pp., $128 (Hardcover), 2021
Thermoelectricity generally refers to the generation of electricity from two dissimilar metals with an applied temperature gradient—the Seebeck effect. The reverse can also occur in which a current, passing through dissimilar metals, can create a temperature gradient—Peltier effect. However, there are also other forms of thermoelectricity. Electricity can be generated from waste heat from gas combustion engines and other processes that generate waste heat.
This book describes the fundamentals of electrothermal transport phenomena and applications of thermoelectric materials, devices, and systems. This book is intended for readers looking to gain a basic understanding of thermoelectrics who also want to learn about the various applications and various methods that use thermoelectric energy conversion.
After a brief introduction on the history of thermoelectricity, key design equations are presented that give the reader the ability to design systems, predict performance, and optimize designs. Refrigeration and power generation applications with analytical models to aid in quantifying performance are presented. The impact of material properties and material morphology are also explored along with transient response times for various applications.
Other topics cover maximum power output and material cost optimization for a power generation example using thermoelectric materials. Power generation utilizing unused energy in other types of power systems such as coal-fired steam turbines is also presented. These use methods for heat recovery such as exhaust heat from automobiles and solar energy harvesting to generate electricity.
Another application area explored is wearable electronics powered by thermoelectric materials harvesting heat energy from the body. Examples of this emerging technology are described including characterization of new materials and devices. Micro and nano-material devices are shown and the methods used to characterize these materials.
Simulation tools are discussed, and online design tools at https://nanohub. org are available to help to understand key trade-offs in system design. Future trends in thermo-electrics are discussed along with promising directions for materials research.
Researchers interested in learning about thermoelectricity and the various types of applications and methods used to generate thermoelectricity would benefit the most from this book.
Power Electronics and Motor Drives—Advances and Trends, 2nd Edition
50 Hampshire Street
Cambridge, MA 02139 http://www.elsevier.com/books-and-
1,108 pp., $175 (Softcover), 2021
The field of power electronics continues to grow. The increasing need for power-efficient products is one of the major factors driving the demand for the power electronics products across all industries. The power electronics sector has undergone a huge transformation in the last 30 years. Further, the number of applications for power electronics has increased, primarily due to the emergence of improved semiconductor devices and microprocessors. Moreover, the development and use of wide band gap semiconductor devices is expected to continue to change the power electronics industry. This can be attributed to the use of superior materials such as SiC, and GaN, among others that allow devices to operate at high speeds, voltage, and temperature with the potential to enhance the efficiency of power electronics considerably. This second edition on Power Electronics and Motor Drives provides a timely reference for our readers who work with power electronics. This comprehensive reference book covers the fundamentals of the most currently used power electronic topologies and applications. These include the traditional phase-controlled converters, and the more recent voltage-source converters (VSC) and current-source-converter (CSC) topologies. Specific applications cover variable speed drives, induction motor drives, and synchronous motor drives. The remainder of the book deals with simulation, microprocessor control methods, fuzzy logic, and neural net applications. There are also questions and answers provided at the end of the book that discuss problems or questions commonly asked/encountered in various applications. The Q&A provides insight into the applications. This book provides a great summary of the key factors and characteristics of individual power electronic components as well as the behavior of application circuits such as VSCs and CSCs providing the reader with a clear understanding of the operation of a circuit and the knowledge to be able to modify the circuit for a specific application. The limitations of each topology are also clearly identified, and suggestions are provided to mitigate the limitations. One example shows the use of zero-voltage and zero-current switching methods to mitigate EMI and noise. Engineers who want to learn about power electronic converters and motor drives will be most interested in this book. It provides a great background for quickly learning about this fast-growing technology. Experienced power electronics engineers may also find this book useful for learning about the latest advancements in power electronics for drives that include artificial intelligence for the next generation of power electronics.
Blockchain Technologies, Applications and Cryptocurrencies—Current Practice and Future Trends
World Scientific Publishing Co.
5 Toh Tuck Link
27 Warren Street
Hackensack, NJ 07601 http://www.worldscientificpress.com ISBN 978-981-120-526-2
293 pp., $98 (Hardcover), 2021
A blockchain is a digital ledger of transactions that is duplicated and distributed across the entire network of computer systems, recording informa-tion in a way that makes it difficult or impossible to change, hack, or cheat the system. Cryptocurrency is a type of digital currency that generally only exists electronically. There is no physical coin or bill unless you use a service that allows you to cash in cryptocurrency for a physical token. It enables electronic cash transactions between peers without the need for a third part. Cryptocurrencies provide a distributed, safe, and decentralized payment system, which does not need banks, intermediates, an organization, or a central technical infrastructure to work. The values of various cryptocurrencies have seen great volatility with dramatic price swings over the past few years. This book provides the reader a background on the methods of blockchain technologies and cryptocurrencies with descriptions of the evolving theory and practice of distributed ledger technologies and their application. Numerous application examples are provided to illustrate how this technology is being used in the world. Considerations such as consumer acceptance, business adoption, and regulation are discussed along with discussions on potential limitations such as computer crashes, limited supply, computing power needed to “mine” coins, hacking, and lack of widespread adoption. Even with these challenges, many cryptocurrencies continue to exponentially increase in value. An interesting modern development, blockchain and cryptocurrencies, this book provides the reader with the background and the uses of various cryptocurrencies currently available in this extremely dynamic emerging technology.
Superconducting Materials and Their Applications—An Interdisciplinary Approach
IOP Publishing Ltd.
Temple Circus, Temple Way
Bristol, BS1 6HG, UK
Phone: +44 (0)117 929 7481
190 North Independence Mall West,
Philadelphia, PA 19106
Phone: +01 215 627 0880 http://store.ioppublishing.org ISBN 978-0-7503-2256-0
133 pp., €134,99 (eBook), 2021
Superconductors have fascinated many over the years with zero resistance, magnetic levitation, and many potential applications. However, high-temperature superconductors have been difficult to reliably produce for practical applications. This book provides an accessible view into the most promising applications for superconductors to date and describes the advances made in materials and engineering designs that bring superconductivity closer to practical applications.
A general introduction and historical perspective on the phenomenon of superconductivity, and low-Tc materials, are first introduced followed by a brief explanation of high-Tc cuprates, MgB2, and the status of applications using them at relatively higher temperatures. A description of other categories of superconductors, especially hydrides and organic superconductors, which have potential for exhibiting superconductivity at room temperature, are described. The book covers existing and emerging applications based on RF cavities and high-field magnets and low-field applications such as those based on highly sensitive SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) detectors and MEG/MCG (magnetoencephalography/magnetocardiography).
Applications of superconductors in bio-magnetism, particularly some recent applications in diagnostics and neuroscience, and some of the successful uses of high-Tc superconductors are also highlighted. Finally, a record of commercialization of potential high temperature superconductor devices, the continued research in the field of superconductivity, and recent new emerging applications are described.
This is definitely different from most books on superconductors in that it does not focus on the physics and mathematics generally associated with superconductors, but rather on applications and providing the reader with an understanding of the physics without the in-depth equations. Even without the detailed equations and theory, there are still many very good technical details plainly explained that help the reader understand the underlying physics and the challenges researchers have in developing high temperature superconductors and applications. There are some very nice photographs of applications, charts, graphs, and circuit diagrams that help explain designs and the applications being presented. One application that may be of special interest to some of our readers would be the superconducting fault current limiter (SCFCL). Drawings show the basic design of the SCFCL coil and the circuit used to test the device including materials used and circuit ratings for current and voltages.
This is a very interesting book for anyone who wants to learn more about the most recent developments and applications in superconductor technology.
Energy Storage Devices for Renewable Energy– Based Systems— Rechargeable Batteries and Supercapacitors, 2nd Edition
N. Kularatna and K. Gunawardane Academic Press
An imprint of Elsevier
50 Hampshire Street
Cambridge, MA 02139 http://www.elsevier.com/books-and-journals
438 pp., $165 (Softcover), 2021
The new energy landscape has the potential for many new innovations for powering the future. With the proliferation of renewable energy sources such as wind, solar, fuel cells, and geothermal, there is increasing research and development of technologies expected to support the power grid of the future. Currently, many proposed power networks require some form of energy storage to moderate the intermittent nature of these renewable energy sources. Two such energy storage devices, that the authors are convinced will play a critical role in future power distribution systems, are batteries and supercapacitors.
This book provides a comprehensive overview of batteries and supercapacitors for use in energy storage for power distribution applications. Concepts, principles, and practical applications are presented showing the history and current state of the art in batteries and supercapacitor development. Among the many excellent application ideas and operational theory provided, some of the best information in this book covers performance comparisons of the various competing technologies for batteries and supercapacitors. This data, in combination with the variety of applications presented, can inspire the reader and open up entirely new concepts that have not been previously considered, especially with the idea of using supercapacitors for holding up circuits during transient power disturbances or other power quality issues. Supercapacitors can have up to hundreds of Farads of capacitance, which can allow for very long discharge times and have high energy densities. The many advancements in materials and design have greatly increased the performance of supercapacitors over the last 20 years and have resulted in these new potential applications for power distribution networks and other applications.
The book begins by introducing the modern electrical system and the role of distributed energy generation along with the need for energy storage and the variety of energy storage devices today. Next, the book focuses on the details of batteries and supercapacitors, including the fundamentals, design, and modeling of batteries and supercapacitors. The remainder of the book concentrates on applications for supercapacitors including holdup circuits for power systems, DC-to-DC converters, uninterruptible power supplies, LED lighting, surge arrestors, and rapid heat transfer systems.
This is a very interesting and informative book that will provide researchers working on future energy systems and others who may simply be interested in supercapacitor technology with ideas and a wealth of information on energy storage batteries and new applications for supercapacitors.